Mastering Stratego, the classic game of imperfect information


DeepNash learns to play Stratego from scratch by combining game theory and model-free deep RL

Game-playing artificial intelligence (AI) systems have advanced to a new frontier. Stratego, the classic board game that’s more complex than chess and Go, and craftier than poker, has now been mastered. Published in Science, we present DeepNash, an AI agent that learned the game from scratch to a human expert level by playing against itself.

DeepNash uses a novel approach, based on game theory and model-free deep reinforcement learning. Its play style converges to a Nash equilibrium, which means its play is very hard for an opponent to exploit. So hard, in fact, that DeepNash has reached an all-time top-three ranking among human experts on the world’s biggest online Stratego platform, Gravon.

Board games have historically been a measure of progress in the field of AI, allowing us to study how humans and machines develop and execute strategies in a controlled environment. Unlike chess and Go, Stratego is a game of imperfect information: players cannot directly observe the identities of their opponent’s pieces.

Read more